含光混世贵无名,孤高何用比云月
Specialty_(medicine)

查询结果如下:

详细条目 英文搜索 <<快速查询:
A medical specialty is a branch of medical practice that is focused on a defined group of patients, diseases, skills, or philosophy. Examples include children (paediatrics), cancer (oncology), laboratory medicine (pathology), or primary care (family medicine). After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple-year residency to become a specialist.



A medical specialty is a branch of medical practice that is focused on a defined group of patients, diseases, skills, or philosophy. Examples include children (paediatrics), cancer (oncology), laboratory medicine (pathology), or primary care (family medicine). After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple-year residency to become a specialist.



History of medical specialization


To a certain extent, medical practitioners have long been specialized. According to Galen, specialization was common among Roman physicians.[citation needed] The particular system of modern medical specialties evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialties varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary.


Classification of medical specialization


Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:


  • Surgical or internal medicine
  • Age range of patients
  • Diagnostic or therapeutic
  • Organ-based or technique-based

Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are those in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries, anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.
Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.
The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.
A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.


Specialties that are common worldwide








SpecialtyMay be subspecialty of
Age range
of patients
Diagnostic (D) or
therapeutic (T)
specialty
Surgical (S) or
internal medicine (I)
specialty
Organ-based (O)
or technique-based (T)
Allergy and immunologyInternal medicine
Pediatrics
AllBothIO
Adolescent medicinePediatrics
family medicine
PediatricBothIT
AnesthesiologyNone
AllTBothBoth
Aerospace medicineFamily Medicine
AllBothNeitherBoth
BariatricsSeveral
AllBothBothBoth
CardiologyInternal medicine
AdultsTIO
Cardiothoracic surgeryGeneral surgery
AdultsTSO
Child and adolescent psychiatryPsychiatry
PaediatricTIT
Clinical neurophysiologyNeurology
AllDIBoth
Colorectal surgeryGeneral Surgery
AllBothSO
DermatologyNone
AllTIO
Developmental pediatricsPediatrics
PediatricTINeither
Emergency medicineFamily Medicine
AllBothBothBoth
EndocrinologyInternal medicine
AdultsTIO
Family MedicineNone
AllBothBothMultidisciplinary
Forensic pathologyPathology
AllDNeitherT
Forensic psychiatryPsychiatry
AllDIT
GastroenterologyInternal medicine
AdultsTIO
General surgeryNone
AdultsTST
General surgical oncologyGeneral surgery
AdultsTST
GeriatricsFamily medicine
Internal medicine
GeriatricTIMultidisciplinary
Geriatric psychiatryGeriatrics
Psychiatry
GeriatricTINeither
Gynecologic oncologyObstetrics and gynecology
AllTSO
HematologyInternal medicine
pathology
AdultsDINeither
Hematologic pathologyHematology
Pathology
AllDNeitherT
Infectious diseaseInternal medicine
Pediatrics
AllBothINeither
Internal medicineNone
AdultsTINeither
Interventional radiologyRadiology
AllBoth-Multidisciplinary
Intensive care medicineAnesthesiology
Emergency medicine
Internal medicine
AllTBothBoth
Maternal-fetal medicineObstetrics and gynecology
AdultsTSBoth
Medical biochemistryInternal medicine
AllDINeither
Medical geneticsNone
AllDINeither
Medical oncologyInternal medicine
AdultsDINeither
NeonatologyPediatrics
NeonatalTINeither
NephrologyInternal medicine
AllTIO
NeurologyInternal medicine
AllTIO
NeuropathologyPathology
AllDNeitherT
NeurosurgeryNone
AllTSO
Nuclear medicineNone
AllBothIT
Obstetrics and gynecologyFamily medicine
AllTSO
Occupational medicineFamily medicine
Internal medicine
AdultsTIMultidisciplinary
OphthalmologyNone
AllTSO
Orthopedic surgeryNone
AllTSO
Oral and maxillofacial surgeryNone
AllTSO
OtorhinolaryngologyNone
AllTSO
Palliative careFamily Medicine
Internal medicine
Pediatrics
AllBothNeitherNeither
PathologyNone
AllDNeitherT
PediatricsNone
PediatricTINeither
Pediatric allergy and immunologyPediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric cardiologyPediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric emergency medicinePediatrics
PediatricBothBothBoth
Pediatric endocrinologyPediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric gastroenterologyPediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric hematology and oncologyPediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric infectious diseasePediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric nephrologyPediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric respiratory medicinePediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric rheumatologyPediatrics
PediatricTIO
Pediatric surgeryGeneral surgery
PediatricTSO
Physical medicine and rehabilitationNone
AllTIMultidisciplinary
Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgeryGeneral surgery
AllTSO
PsychiatryFamily medicine
AllBothIT
Public healthFamily medicine
AllNeitherNeitherT
Radiation oncologyNone
AllTNeitherT
RadiologyNone
AllBothIT
Reproductive endocrinology and infertilityObstetrics and gynecology
AdultsTST
Respiratory medicineInternal medicine
AdultsTIO
RheumatologyInternal medicine
AdultsTINeither
Sports medicineFamily medicine
AllBothNeitherMultidisciplinary
Thoracic surgeryGeneral surgery
AdultsTST
NeuroradiologyRadiology
AllBothIBoth
UrologyNone
AllTSO
Vascular surgeryGeneral surgery
AllTSO

List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area


The European Union publishes a list of specialties recognized in the European Union, and by extension, the European Economic Area. Note that there is substantial overlap between some of the specialties and it is likely that for example 'Clinical radiology' and 'Radiology' refer to a large degree to the same pattern of practice across Europe.





List of North American medical specialties and others


In this table, as in many healthcare arenas, medical specialties are organized into the following groups:


  • Surgical specialties focus on manually operative and instrumental techniques to treat disease.
  • Medical specialties that focus on the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of disease.
  • Diagnostic specialties focus more purely on diagnosis of disorders.






Specialty
Code
Group
Sub-specialties
Focus
Allergy and immunology
Allergic reactions, asthma, and the immune system
Anesthesiology
AN, PAN
Surgery[citation needed]

Anesthesia
Bariatrics
Deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity.
Cardiology
Medicine

Disease of the cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular surgery
Surgery
The operation of heart and major blood vessels of the chest.
Clinical laboratory sciences
Diagnostic

Application of diagnostic techniques in medical laboratories such as assays, microscope analysis.
Dermatology
D, DS
Medicine
Dermatology, Mohs surgery
Skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc.).
Dietetics
RD
Food and nutrition
Emergency medicine
EM
Medicine

The initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital emergency departments or the field.
Endocrinology
Medicine
The endocrine system (i.e., endocrine glands and hormones) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.
Family medicine
FM
Medicine
  • Addiction medicine
  • Adolescent medicine
  • Anesthesia
  • Emergency medicine
  • Care of the elderly (geriatric medicine)
  • Clinical environmental health
  • Global health
  • HIV care
  • Hospital medicine
  • Indigenous health
  • Low-risk obstetrics
  • Medical education
  • Medical oncology
  • Medical simulation
  • Pain medicine
  • Palliative care
  • Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS)
  • Research
  • Sleep medicine
  • Sports and exercise medicine
  • Women's health

Continuing, comprehensive healthcare for the individual and family, integrating the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences to treat patients of all ages, sexes, organ systems, and diseases.
Forensic medicine
Medicine
Gastroenterology
GI
Medicine
The alimentary tract
General surgery
GS
Surgery
  • Colorectal surgery
  • Gastrointestinal surgery
  • Transplant surgery
  • Trauma surgery

Geriatrics
IMG
Medicine[citation needed]
Elderly patients
Gynecology
Female reproductive health
Hepatology
Medicine
The liver and biliary tract, usually a part of gastroenterology.
Hospital medicine
Medicine
Infectious disease
ID
Medicine
Diseases caused by biological agents
Intensive care medicine
Medicine
Life support and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU.
Internal Medicine
Medicine
Medical research
Anatomy, Biochemistry, Embryology, Genetics, Pharmacology, Toxicology
Care of hospitalized patients
Nephrology
Medicine
Kidney diseases
Neurology
N
Medicine

Diseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems
Neurosurgery
NS
Surgery

Disease of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and spinal column.
Obstetrics and gynecology
OB/GYN
Surgery[citation needed]

Oncology
ON
Medicine

Cancer and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.
Ophthalmology
OPH
Surgery
Retina, Cornea
Diseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery
Maxfacs, OMS
Surgery
  • Oral and Craniofacial surgery (Head and neck)
  • Facial cosmetic surgery
  • Craniomaxillofacial trauma

Disease of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Orthopedic surgery
ORS
Surgery
Hand surgery, surgical sports medicine, adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery
Injury and disease of the musculoskeletal system.
Otorhinolaryngology, or ENT
ORL, ENT
Surgery
Head and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neurotology, Laryngology
Treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty that is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.
Palliative care
PLM
Medicine
A relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.
Pathology
PTH
Diagnostic
Understanding disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty that uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information and the related scientific study of disease processes.
Pediatrics
PD
Medicine
Children. Like internal medicine, pediatrics has many sub-specialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most sub-specialties of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric oncology, pediatric ophthalmology, and neonatology.
deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16–21, depending on the country).
Pediatric surgery
Surgery
Treats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal (and sometimes urologic) diseases of childhood.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation Or Physiatry
PM&R
Medicine
  • Cancer Rehabilitation
  • Pain Management
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Sports Medicine
  • Pediatrics
  • Hospice & Palliative Medicine

Concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.
Plastic surgery
PS
Surgery
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Burn
  • Microsurgery
  • Hand surgery
  • Craniofacial surgery

Elective cosmetic surgery as well as reconstructive surgery after traumatic or operative mutilation.
Podiatry
POD
Surgery
  • Forefoot surgery
  • Midfoot surgery
  • Rearfoot surgery
  • Ankle surgery
  • Soft tissue leg surgery

Elective podiatric surgery of the foot and ankle, lower limb diabetic wound and salvation, peripheral vascular disease limb preservation, lower limb mononeuropathy conditions. Reconstructive foot & ankle surgery.
Proctology
PRO
Medicine
(or Colorectal Surgery) Treats disease in the rectum, anus, and colon.
Psychiatry
P
Medicine

The bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders. Related fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
Pulmonology
Medicine
The lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
Public Health
Public health focuses on the health of populations. Physicians employed in this field work in policy, research or health promotion, taking a broad view of health that encompasses the social determinants of health.
Radiology
R, DR
Diagnostic and Therapeutic
  • Interventional radiology is concerned with using expert imaging of the human body, usually via CT, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or MRI to perform a breadth of intravascular procedures (angioplasty, arterial stenting, thrombolysis, uterine fibroid embolization), biopsies and minimally invasive oncologic procedures (radiofrequency and cryoablation of tumors & transarterial chemoembolization)
  • Nuclear medicine uses radioactive substances for in vivo and in vitro diagnosis either using imaging of the location of radioactive substances placed into a patient or using in vitro diagnostic tests utilizing radioactive substances.

The use of expertise in radiation in the context of medical imaging for diagnosis or image guided minimally invasive therapy. X-rays, etc.
Rheumatology
RHU
Medicine
Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.
Surgical oncology
SO
Surgery
Curative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment.
Thoracic surgery
TS
Surgery
Surgery of the organs of the thoracic cavity: the heart, lungs, and great vessels.
Transplant surgery
TTS
Surgery
Transplantation of organs from one body to another
Urgent Care Medicine
UCM
Medicine
Immediate medical care offering outpatient care for the treatment of acute and chronic illness and injury
Urology
U
Surgery
Urinary tracts of males and females, and the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology ('men's health').
Vascular surgery
VS
Surgery
The peripheral blood vessels – those outside the chest (usually operated on by cardiovascular surgeons) and outside the central nervous system (treated by neurosurgery)

Salaries


The mean annual salary of a medical specialist in the US in 2006 was $175,011 and $272,000 for surgeons.
The table below details the average range of salaries for physicians in the US of selected specialties as of July 2010. Also given in the average number of hours worked per week for full-time physicians (2003 data).






Specialty
Median salary (USD)
Average hours

work/week


Average salary/hour (USD)
Anaesthesia
331,000 to $423,507
61
Dermatology
313,100 to $480,088
45.5
103
Emergency medicine
239,000 to $316,296
46
87
Cardiac Surgery
218,684 to $500,000
55
Family medicine
175,000 to $220,196
52.5
58
Internal medicine
184,200 to $231,691
57
58
Neurology
213,000 to $301,327
55.5
93
Obstetrics and Gynecology
251,500 to $326,924
61
83
Ophthalmology
150,000 to $351,000
47
Orthopedic surgery
397,879 to $600,000
58
Otolaryngology
191,000 to $393,000
53.5
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
360,000 to $625,210
53
Pediatrics
160,111 to $228,750
54
69
Podiatry
170,800 to $315,150
45
80
Psychiatry
173,800 to $248,198
48
72
Radiology (diagnostic)
377,300 to $478,000
58
Surgery (general)
284,642 to $383,333
60
Urology
331,192 to $443,518
60.5
Neurosurgery
350,000 to $705,000
132
Plastic surgery
265,000 to $500,000
114
Gastroenterology
251,026 to $396,450
93
Pulmonology
165,000 to $365,875
72

Specialties by country


Australia and New Zealand


There are 15 recognised specialty medical Colleges in Australia. The majority of these are Australasian Colleges and therefore also oversee New Zealand specialist doctors. These Colleges are:





Specialist CollegeMajor Subspecialties
Approximate number of specialist doctors/trainees
Australasian College for Emergency MedicinePaediatric emergency medicine
5,000
Australasian College of Dermatologists700
Australasian College of Sport and Exercise Physicians350
Australian and New Zealand College of AnaesthetistsPain medicine
7,000
Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine4,500
College of Intensive Care MedicinePaediatric Intensive care
1,200
Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators800
Royal Australasian College of PhysiciansAddiction medicine, Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Genetics, Geriatrics, Haematology, Infectious diseases, Immunology, Neonatal, Nephrology, Neurology, Occupational, Oncology, Paediatrics, Palliative medicine, Public Health, Rehabilitation, Respiratory, Rheumatology, Sexual Health
25,000
Royal Australasian College of SurgeonsCardiothoracic, General surgery, Head & neck, Neurosurgery, Orthopaedics, Paediatric surgery, Plastics, Urology, Vascular
9,000
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and GynaecologistsObstetrics, Gynaecology, Fertility medicine, Obstetric ultrasound, Gynaecological oncology, Urogynaecology
2,500
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists1,100
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists5,000
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of RadiologistsDiagnostic, Interventional, Ultrasound, Nuclear medicine
3,500
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners40,000
Royal College of Pathologists of AustralasiaAnatomical, Chemical, Clinical, Forensic, Genetic, Haematological, Immunological, Microbiological Pathology
1,000

In addition, the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons supervises training of specialist medical practitioners specializing in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in addition to its role in the training of dentists. There are approximately 260 faciomaxillary surgeons in Australia.
The Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners is a distinct body from the Australian Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. There are approximately 5100 members of the RNZCGP.
Within some of the larger Colleges, there are sub-faculties, such as: Australasian Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine within the Royal Australasian College of Physicians
There are some collegiate bodies in Australia that are not officially recognised as specialities by the Australian Medical Council but have a College structure for members, such as: Australasian College of Physical Medicine
There are some collegiate bodies in Australia of Allied Health non-medical practitioners with specialisation. They are not recognised as medical specialists, but can be treated as such by private health insurers, such as: Australasian College of Podiatric Surgeons


Canada


Specialty training in Canada is overseen by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the College of Family Physicians of Canada. For specialists working in the province of Quebec, the Collège des médecins du Québec also oversees the process.


Germany


In Germany these doctors use the term Facharzt.


India


Specialty training in India is overseen by the Medical Council of India, which is responsible for recognition of post graduate training and by the National Board of Examinations. And education of Ayurveda in overseen by Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), the council conducts u.g and p.g courses all over India, while Central Council of Homoeopathy does the same in the field of Homeopathy.


Sweden


In Sweden, a medical license is required before commencing specialty training. Those graduating from Swedish medical schools are first required to do a rotational internship of about 1.5 to 2 years in various specialties before attaining a medical license. The specialist training lasts 5 years.


United States


There are three agencies or organizations in the United States that collectively oversee physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the United States in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the country. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association (AMA); the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists (AAPS). Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.





Certifying board
National organization
Physician type
ABMS
AMA
MD and DO
ABPS
AAPS
MD and DO
AOABOS
AOA
DO only

All boards of certification now require that medical practitioners demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years.
In the United States there are hierarchies of medical specialties in the cities of a region. Small towns and cities have primary care, middle sized cities offer secondary care, and metropolitan cities have tertiary care. Income, size of population, population demographics, distance to the doctor, all influence the numbers and kinds of specialists and physicians located in a city.


Demography


A population's income level determines whether sufficient physicians can practice in an area and whether public subsidy is needed to maintain the health of the population. Developing countries and poor areas usually have shortages of physicians and specialties, and those in practice usually locate in larger cities. For some underlying theory regarding physician location, see central place theory.
The proportion of men and women in different medical specialties varies greatly. Such sex segregation is largely due to differential application.


Satisfaction and burnout


A survey of physicians in the United States came to the result that dermatologists are most satisfied with their choice of specialty followed by radiologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, and gastroenterologists. In contrast, primary care physicians were the least satisfied, followed by nephrologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, and pulmonologists. Surveys have also revealed high levels of depression among medical students (25 - 30%) as well as among physicians in training (22 - 43%), which for many specialties, continue into regular practice. A UK survey conducted of cancer-related specialties in 1994 and 2002 found higher job satisfaction in those specialties with more patient contact. Rates of burnout also varied by specialty.


简典