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    化工:化工原理与技术

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    I am having some trouble with understanding conversion,yield,etc.in reacting systems.

    我在理解反应系统的转化率、产率等问题上有一些困难。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Chemical reactions involve the exchange of atoms between reacting species under certain rules.The conservation of mass is among the most intrinsic ones.

    化学反应包含着各物质之间按一定规则的原子交换。质量守恒是其中最基本的规则之一。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Stoichiometry tells us the useful way to help measure the conversion and conservation of matter taking part in a chemical reaction.

    化学计量学给我们指出了有用的方法,帮助我们确定在化学反应中发生的物质转换和守恒。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    (writes down:Vla+v2B+v3C← →v4D+V5E.)This represents an exchange of atoms between substances or molecules,a,B and C resulting in the formation of the new substances D and E,strictly according to the ratio of their stoichiometric coefficients Vi.

    (写出V1a+V2B+V3C←→v4D+V5E)这个方程代表原子在物质或称分子a、B、C之间交换生成新物质D、E,严格地按照它们的化学计量系数Vi之比进行。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Selectivity expresses the amount of a desired product obtained from the reaction as a fraction of the theoretical amount which could be obtained from the amount of reactant supplied.

    选择性表达了反应获得的目标产品的量与从提供的反应物质中按理论应该获得的产品量之比。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    In other words it’s a measure of the fraction of undesired by-products.

    换句话,它是不希望有的副产品的生成分率的度量。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Plant yield is a convenient way of considering all the chemical and physical losses, and is defined for a specific product as the ratio of amount produced to the theoretical amount calculated

    工厂产率是一个考察所有化学和物理损失的方便的方法,对于某一特定产品,它被定义为实际产量与理论计算量之比

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Based on a reactant fed to the process according to the stoichiometric coefficients. all these different indicators approach unity as they approach their optimums.

    后者是基于供给过程的反应物质量按化学计量系数算得的。所有这些指标当达到它们的最佳状态时,都接近1。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    I remember now, the first, second and third laws right.

    现在我想得起的就是第一、第二和第三定律。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    The first law states that energy can neither be created, nor destroyed.

    第一定律说明能量既不会产生.也不会消失。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    The second law was that randomness always goes up in a system.

    第二定律是说一个系统的混乱程度总是增加的。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    As long as the system is isolated. In thermodynamics jargon, randomness is called entropy. The third law states that no system can be reduced to 0 K.

    前提是系统要孤立。在热力学行话中,混乱程度叫做熵。第三定律断言,没有一个系统能达到绝对零度。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Problem is, I still don’t follow the implications of those. It’s way over my head.

    问题是我仍然不明白它们的含义,这超出了我的头脑的想象能力。.

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    In chemical engineering, the first law is used to make our most basic equation: In Out + accumulation.

    在化学工程中,第一定律用来建立最基本的方程,流入=流出+积累。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    So if you fill your sink up, but leave the plug out, when the water level stops rising, the water in = the water out.

    比如你往洗手池里灌水却没把塞子塞上,当水位停止上升的时候,就可以说,流进的水=流出的水。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    The first reported experiments were done in the late 18th century, but it really took off in the mid 19th century with people like the famous Joule who did the ground work experiments for the discovery of the first law.

    最早发表的报告是在18世纪末期,不过真正的起飞是在19世纪中叶,由焦耳等著名人物为第一定律的发现做了奠基性的实验工作。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Myriads of molecules hurtling at high speed in random directions, occasionally moving close enough to one another to interact and maybe react. This is the situation in a chemical reactor.

    无数个高速横冲直撞的分子,偶尔才能彼此靠近到足以相互作用并有可能发生反应。这就是化学反应器里的情形。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Historically, a ridiculous cosmic consequence of the second law stated that the universe would end up as merely heat energy. I disagree. The problem lies in that the universe can’t be isolated as required by the law.

    历史上,第二定律在宇宙学方面的一个荒谬的推论曾断言就像热能会终结一样,宇宙终有一天会沉寂。我不同意,问题出在宇宙不可能像热力学定律所说的那样被孤立起来。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    Molecules reacting occasionally are all well and good, but chemical engineers are interested in causing a lot of the correct reactions to produce useful products, as safely and cheaply as possible.

    这些偶尔发生反应的分子确实很好,不过化学工程师更感兴趣的是尽可能安全、尽可能便宜地引发大量的理想反应来生产有用的产品。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

    For this they must be able to design chemical reactors, which lie at the heart of most chemical plants, and are the site of all this frenetic activity. This is no small problem and a mistake here could be costly.

    为此,他们必须能够设计出作为大多数化工厂的心脏的反应器,所有激烈的反应都在里面发生。这不是小事,任何一个错误在这里都要付出高昂的代价。

    属类:化学及生命科学-化工-化工原理与技术

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