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    医学:生理与解剖

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    Embryo: Early stage of development of an organism in the egg or the uterus, during which its essential form and its organs and tissues develop.

    胚胎:动物在卵中或母体子宫内发育的早期阶段,在这段期间其基本的形式、器官和组织开始发展。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    In humans, the organism is called an embryo for the first seven or eight weeks after conception, after which it is called a fetus.

    在人类指受孕后到第七或第八周为止的有机体,之后则称为胎儿。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    In mammals, the fertilized egg or zygote undergoes cleavage (cell division without cell growth)to form a hollow ball or blastocyst.

    在哺乳动物中,卵与精子结合而成受精卵,受精卵发生数次细胞分裂(卵裂)后,形成一个中空球形的囊胚。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    During the second week following fertilization, gastrulation (cell differentiation and migration)results in the formation of three tissue types.

    受精之后第二周,原肠胚形成后,胚胎分化为三个组织类型

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    These three types of tissue develop into different organ systems: the ectoderm develops into the skin and nervous system; the mesoderm develops into connective tissues, the circulatory system, muscles, and bones; and the endoderm develops into the lining of the digestive system, lungs, and urinary system.

    这三种组织类型再发展为不同的器官系统︰外胚层发育成皮肤和神经系统;中胚层发展为结缔组织、循环系统、肌肉和骨骼;内胚层形成消化系统、肺以及泌尿系统。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    In humans, by about the fourth week, the head and trunk can be distinguished and the brain, spinal cord, and internal organs begin to develop.

    以人类来说,在受孕后第四周左右,头部和躯干的区分逐渐明显,脑、脊髓、内部器官开始发育。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    By the fifth week, limbs begin to appear and the embryo is about .33 in. (.8 cm)long. By the end of eight weeks, the embryo has grown to about 1 in. (2.5 cm)long and all subsequent change is limited primarily to growth and specialization of existing structures. Any congenital disorders begin in this stage.

    到了第五周,四肢开始出现,胚胎长约0.33吋(0.8公分)。到第八周结束,胚胎已成长到1吋(2.5公分)长,接下来的变化有限,主要是现存结构的成长和特化。任何的先天性疾病也是在这个阶段就开始出现。。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    Embryology: Study of the formation and development of an embryo and fetus.

    胚胎学:研究胚胎和胎儿的形成和发育的学科。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    Before widespread use of the microscope and the advent of cellular biology in the 19th century, embryology was based on descriptive and comparative studies.

    在显微镜尚未普及应用和19世纪细胞生物学尚未出现之前,胚胎学只是一门以肉眼形态描述和比较形态学为基础的学科。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    From the time of Aristotle it was debated whether the embryo was a preformed, miniature individual or an undifferentiated form that gradually became specialized.

    从亚里斯多德时代起,人们就开始争论胚胎究竟是什么的问题,“胚胎预存说”、“同比侏儒说”、“逐渐分化说”等等,莫衷一是。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    The latter theory was proved in 1827 when Karl Ernst Baer discovered the mammalian ovum (egg). The German anatomist Wilhelm Roux (1850-1924), noted for his pioneering studies on frog eggs (from 1885), became the founder of experimental embryology.

    直到1827年贝尔发现哺乳动物的卵,才证明胚胎渐成说的理论。德国解剖学家鲁(Wilhelm Roux,1850~1924)以首创蛙卵的研究(1885年起)而闻名,成为实验胚胎学的创始人。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    Endocrine system: Group of ductless glands that secrete hormones necessary for normal growth and development, reproduction, and homeostasis.

    内分泌系统:由无管腺体组成的系统,分泌激素(荷尔蒙)以供身体正常生长、发育、繁殖和自我恒定性之需。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    The major endocrine glands are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, islets of Langerhans, adrenals, parathyroids, ovaries, and testes.

    主要的内分泌腺体包括下视丘、脑下垂体、甲状腺、朗格汉斯氏岛、肾上腺、副甲状腺、卵巢和睪丸。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    Secretion is regulated either by regulators in a gland that detect high or low levels of a chemical and inhibit or stimulate secretion or by a complex mechanism involving the hypothalamus and the pituitary.

    分泌不仅由腺体的调节素来调节(侦测一种化学物质的高或低的水准,而抑制或刺激分泌),还由一种复杂的结构来调节(包含下视丘和脑下垂体)。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    Tumours that produce hormones can throw off this balance. Diseases of the endocrine system result from over-or underproduction of a hormone or an abnormal response to a hormone.

    肿瘤产生的荷尔蒙会打乱这种平衡关系。内分泌系统疾病是由于荷尔蒙分泌过量或不足引起,或因对荷尔蒙不正常的反应。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    Endorphin: Any of a group of proteins occurring in the brain and having pain-relieving properties typical of opium and related opiates.

    恩多芬;脑啡:分布于脑内的一群蛋白质,具有像鸦片之类麻醉剂一样解除疼痛的特性。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    “Discovered in the 1970s, they include enkephalin, beta-endorphin, and dynorphin. Each is distributed in characteristic patterns throughout the nervous system. Endorphins are released in response to pain or sustained exertion (causing, e.g., the ”runner’s high“).”

    1970年代发现恩克发灵(enkephalin)、β-恩多芬(beta-endorphin)及地诺芬(dynorphin)。三者以具有特色的形式分布于整个神经系统。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    They are also believed to have a role in appetite control, release of pituitary sex hormones, and shock.

    恩多芬参与了疼痛调节过程及针刺止痛过程,它们还与食欲控制、脑下垂体性激素的释放和休克有关。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    “There is strong evidence that they are connected with ”pleasure centres“ in the brain, and they seem to be activated by acupuncture. Knowledge of their behaviour has implications for treating addictions and chronic pain. ”

    实验证明恩多芬与脑内的“快乐中枢”非常有关,用针刺疗法似乎可激起它们反应。认识恩多芬的作用将有助于对成瘾性和习惯性疼痛问题的治疗。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

    Epinephrine (or adrenaline):One of two hormones (the other being norepinephrine)secreted by the adrenal glands, as well as at some nerve endings where they serve as neurotransmitters. They are similar chemically and have similar actions on the body.

    肾上腺素:是肾上腺髓质分泌的两种荷尔蒙(另一种是正肾上腺素)。亦在一些做为神经介质的神经末梢中释出。两者的化学结构差别不大,对身体的反应亦类似。

    属类:化学及生命科学-医学-生理与解剖

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